Tuesday, November 27, 2007

Saipan's coral reefs

color, size, skeleton, shape, grow forms

Similarities: need temperature, food, warm water, oxygen, and nutrients.

1. How is each reef structure formed?

- Fringing reefs have a horizontal surface, with the coral maintaining a level close to the surface by means of animal growth; over the years, the reef will gradually advance seawards.
Barrier reefs form further from the coast. They are constantly pounded by the ocean waves and, as their name suggests, form a barrier that protects the coastline. These barriers have a frontal reef zone that takes the brunt of the ocean’s assault and where construction continues steadily, either thanks to madrepora* or calcareous algae. Atolls are formed entirely of calcium carbonate; the part above water level is made of sand and coral debris that has been washed up by the waves, and the dominant form of vegetation is generally palm trees. Atolls usually form a ring around a central lagoon; some lagoons are quite shallow while others are nearly 100 metres deep.The lagoons are connected to the outside ocean by channels or gaps in the reef that may be used by boats, and sometimes by shallow-water passes or simply by the fact that waves can swirl over submerged parts of the reef.
2. Where is each reef structure found?

- Fringing reefs are found in the Bismarck Archipelago in the southwest Pacific.

- Atolls always occur n the Indo-West Pacific Region, which is mean which always appear in the tropical Indian and western Pacific oceans.

- Barrier reefs always found in the Caribbean lies of the coast of Belize, Central America. They also found in Florida, New Caledonia, New Guineaand Fiji in Pacific

3. What is the trophic structure of a reef?

- That’s the tropical water where coral reefs are found are usually poor in nutrients and therefore have very little phytoplankton or primary production. zooxanthellae provide food and help make the calcium carbonate skeleton. In return the zooxanthelae get not only a protected place to live, but also a steady supply of carbon dioxide and nutrients such as nitrogen and phonsphorus. Also, nutrient recycling occur not only corals and their zooxanthellae, but all with sponges, sea squirts, giant clams, and other reef invertebrates have symbiotic algae or bacteria and recycle nutrients just as corals do.
4. How does the location and type of reef influence the trophic structure?

- Coral reef communities use nutrients very efficiently as a result of recycling. Coral reefs have among the highest rates of nitrogen fixation of any natural community. The main nitrogen fixers are cyanobacteria, especially a free living one called Calotbrix and another group that live symbiotically in sponges.
5. Give examples of the types of corals found on reefs.


1. Elkhorn coral is among the different forms of coral found on the reefs of Biscayne National Park.

2. Soft coral (Sarcophyton) fond on the coral reef.

3. Staghorn Coral

6. Give examples of competition, predation, and grazing

Competition: Chevron butterflyfish ( Chaetodon trifascialis)

Predation: Sea Star ( Acanthaster Planci)

Grazing: Sea urchin (Diadema Antillarum)

chapter 14 -Critical thinking

3. There are only a few reefs off the northeast coast of Brazil, even though it lies in the tropics. How would you explain this?

-Reef corals are limited to warm water and can grow and reproduce only if the average water temperature is about about 20oC (68oF). Most reefs grow in considerably warmer areas. Water is too warm is also bad for corals. The upper temperature limit varies, but is usually around 30oC to 35oC (86oF to 95oF). According from the page of 304 we can see the map of Brazil is between 30o to 60oalthough which is close to the average 20o isotherm. Reefs off the northeast coast of Brazil have been less because affected the water temperatures reached 29.5oC on the bottom of these reefs at 9–12 m. That’s the reasons why only a few of reefs are off the northeast coast of Brazil.

Monday, November 26, 2007

Beauty CNMI - Animal first

Beauty CNMI is very important work for everyone. It’s is not just pick up the trash on the beach it is also include protection of the animals. These pictures of small cats and a big dog shows that Beauty CNMI still has a lot work to do. These small cats had a car accident in the middle night near the college. When I find out she is alive I keep she go my house and try to do something to save her life. The first pictures show that just after the accident and the blood come out from her nose and the poo on her fur and smile is very bad. Then the next morning she wake up and be alive. However, she lost her two back legs and can’t walk. After around one week, she can eat and move around by the front two legs but still can’t stand up and walk because the two back legs. Also, she can’t control poo and pee, then she always gets the bad smell on her body even she take shower. I don’t know who is the drunk driver make this small kitty lose her legs but I know if the government make a law about animal there will decrease less car accident of the animal. The other picture is a homeless dog that is always stays in front the door on the Shopping center. Some tourist afraid the dog so they walk away to avoid it and some are was surprised why there is a homeless dog in the shopping center in the beautiful island and nobody take for the poor animal. These pictures can show some things that the government missed. First, the government should make a place for the home less animal to gather and to stay. Then they should make the surgery for the animal to decrees the animal population growing in Saipan. Also, they also have to make the law for the pet owner to care for the animal only inside the house not going around outside and put their poo anywhere on the road. Just like Guam have the place for the home less animal to stay and the law for the pets owner. If Saipan do something like Guam did, there will be no animal died in the road and nobody move away the dead animal body and which view into every tourist eyes make them feel uncomfortable. Also, some tourist form Europe and from the main land said that Saipan people are nice but they don’t understand why they don’t nice to the animals. We are the entire creature made by the God; we all have the same freedom to keep life. But the dead animal or homeless animals show that animals don’t have freedom to keep themselves is alive. Of course, they are animal and they don’t have knowledge like the human to run fast or make a home for themselves. Yet, if the government makes some law, maybe these poor animals will be alive and escaped the fate to die under the car tire. On the other hand, if CNMI have the law to protect the animal which will be more beautiful place in the world.

Friday, November 23, 2007

What is sea floor spreading?

- sea floor spreading is the process in which one ocean floor is extended when two plates move apart, As plates move apart, the rocks break and forma a crack between the plates. Earthquakes occur along the plate boundary; magma rises through the cracks and seeps out onto the ocean floor like a long, thin, undersea volcano.

What are some of the major land forms that are created from plate movement?

-plate movement created seven the big major land on the earth, they are Asia, Africa, north America, south America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia. The plate movement also creates different Small Island just like Saipan and Guam. Also, plate movement also created volcanoes, mountains and trenches.

How were the Mariana Islands formed?

Mariana Island consists of Northern part of Agrihan, Anatahan, Alamagan, and Pagan are inhabited, and Southern part are RotaGuam Aguijan tianian and Saipan , all the Mariana Island are was formed by the volcanoes created from the plate movement long time ago. Although some place of this island already inhabited but a few of these volcanoes still sometimes erupt.

What evidence exists today that the plates are still moving and that the islands are ancient volcanoes?

There are still unknown island recently find by the people and also there are still many movement like Earthquakes are always appear in Japan and sometimes in Saipan. The other example can be the volcanoes erupt or the tsunami in 2004 in Indian.

What is an atoll?

Considered one of the most beautiful of formations to be found in warm waters, the atoll is basically an island that it constructed of coral and encircles a lagoon. Found most often in tropical sections of the Pacific and Indian oceans, atolls are noted for creating an attractive and peaceful setting.

Why are atolls mainly found on the Pacific?

Atolls are the product of the growth of tropical marine organisms, so these islands are only found in warm tropical waters. Volcanic islands located beyond the warm water temperature requirements of reef building (hermatypic) organisms become seamounts as they subside and are eroded away at the surface. Pacific Ocean is the good environment for atolls , so that’s why many atolls are can find there.

chapter 2 -Critical thinking

2. Why are most oceanic trenches found in the Pacific Ocean?
There is about 50,000 km of convergent plate margins, mostly around the Pacific Ocean, because the reason for the reference “Pacific-type” margin. If you look at the map, you can see the Pacific is a circle by the Japan Sea, Philippine Sea and Europe Sea. I think because too much water movement and plate movement cause the too much trenches here.

Saturday, November 10, 2007

chapter 9 -Critical thinking

1. Sea turtles have disappeared from many regions, and one way of trying to save them is to reintroduce them to areas where they have been wiped out. This is done by reburying eggs or by releasing newborn baby turtles on beaches. Why are eggs reburied or baby turtles released instead of fully grown individuals?

- The reason can be the long 2 month hatch time for the eggs and the natural situation like the sand and temperature effect to the eggs. There maybe also other reason like other animal eats the eggs.